INTERNATIONAL LAW IN OUTER SPACE In addition to the United Nations Charter, five treaties negotiated at the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN COPUOS) are considered to form the basis of international space law. The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space,
ABOUT The core function of satellites is to collect and relay data in real time. To transmit data to ground stations and receive information from ground stations, satellites must access and use radio frequencies from the electromagnetic spectrum. These frequencies are vulnerable to a range of harmful interference techniques that are widely available and frequently
A “space weapon” is generally defined as a space-based or co-orbital weapon system that strikes a target – either in space or on Earth – from orbit. Space-based weapons have been contemplated for decades, although only a few concepts have reached the development stage.
ABOUT Space Situational Awareness refers broadly to knowledge about the natural and human-made elements of the space environment, which the European Space Agency specifies as “the provision of timely and accurate information regarding the space environment, and particularly hazards to infrastructure in orbit and on the ground.” These hazards could include space weather events and
WHAT IS SPACE WEATHER? Space weather refers to a collection of physical processes, beginning at the Sun and ultimately affecting infrastructures on Earth and in space that support human activities. The Sun emits coronal mass ejections and plasma streams that release electromagnetic radiation and electrically charged particles. This expulsion of energy into the space environment
ABOUT The ability to operate a satellite in outer space requires access to radiofrequencies and orbital positions, both scarce resources. As the number of spacefaring states, commercial operators, and satellite applications grows, demand for these resources increases. Efficient and equitable managing of these resources to ensure long-term availability requires international cooperation and coordination. THE RADIOFREQUENCY
The UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN COPUOS) is one of several bodies associated with the United Nations (UN) that share responsibility for governing the use of outer space.
The Conference on Disarmament (CD) is one of several bodies associated with the United Nations (UN) that share responsibility for protecting the security of outer space. For more than 35 years, the CD has repeatedly attempted to address the issue of the weaponization of outer space.